Did I miss the revelation?

People + process + technology = good KM!

Did I miss something somewhere? When was KM ever NOT “a concerted effort to improve how knowledge is created, delivered and used?” When was it NOT recommended that “organizations adopt a management strategy that addresses each of those three key activities?”

A recent Wall Street Journal article–Knowledge management can make a difference—but it needs to be more pragmatic–penned by recognized leaders in the KM field, namely Tom Davenport, Laurence Prusak, and Bruce Strong, caught my eye. I thought it had been well understood for YEARS that KM is so much more than technology. Are the revelations in this article really revelations?

My broker first alerted me to this article a couple of weeks ago. I, in turn, forwarded it to

managing stress for comps…

…and, the topic for right now IS management. (This one’s for you Matthew.)

Countdown to comps is about 20 hours… 

And this is from Dr. Patterson’s class… for any of you that need your memories refreshed…

Effective management involves: 
Human Resources
Managing change
Organizing, i.e. policies and procedures
Problem Solving

Important stuff…

Still studying! Do YOU know about these quintessential people and things?

Authors and Researchers:

Batelle, John: “The Search”, i.e. How Google is changing the way we search for info

Buckland, Michael: “information as a thing”; leading author in LIS field, including library services, information retrieval, cultural heritages, and the historical development of Information Management; concerned with metadata, electronic retrieval vocabularies

Case, Donald: “Looking for Information: A survey of research on information seeking, needs, and behavior”

Choo, Chun Wei: leading author in information research and concepts… browsing, (environmental) scanning and serendipity; OL; browsing; tacit, explicit and cultural knowledge

Cortada, James: “Making the information society: Experiences, consequences, and possibilities”

Hawamdeh, Suliman: “Knowledge Management”

Klein and Saunders: Ten Steps to Organizational Learning

Peters, Tom: leading, contemporary management expert and author

Senge, Peter: “The Fifth Discipline”

Taylor, Robert: Value-added processes in information systems

Taylor, Alene: “The organization of information”

Wenger, Etienne: “Communities of Practice: Learning, meaning and identity”



Bates: berry-picking, i.e. pick info and sources from a vast variety

Belkin: ASK = anomalous state of knowledge, i.e. building on other info we already have and whether an anomaly creates additional info seeking

Dervin: sense-making, i.e. need for info driven by our need to understand our world

Erdelez: accidental discovery of info, serendipity and incidental learning

Gross: imposed query

Kuhlthua: learning as a process with uncertainty as beginning stage of research and expressed in stages

Krikelas: ordinary life, i.e. info seeking with uncertainty as motivation and using personal memory/recall or personal contacts to get answer

Pettigrew (Fisher): professionals and work-related processes

Shannon and Weaver: communication model with sender, receiver and noise

Zipf: least effort



ALA: American Library Association

ASLA: American Special Library Association

ASIST: American Society of Information, Science and Technology

IKMS: International Knowledge Management Society

PKP: Public Knowledge Project



Federal Privacy Act, 1974

PCIO vs. Board of Education, 1982

Electronic Communication Privacy Act, 1986

HIPPA, 1996

Financial Services Modernization Act, 1999

Security and Freedom through Encryption Act, 1999

Sarbanes-Oxley Act, 2002



IT Toolbox

Tech Republic

BBC Technology RSS news feed

Gurteen Knowledge

First Monday





How to study for comps…

Following are tips for the successful completion of comprehensive exams…

6 areas to blend and synthesize: philosophical and theoretical foundations; organization and control of info; analysis of user services; management; acquiring and accessing info; application of research methods. Buzzwords “theory”; “organization”; “users”; “management”; “access and acquire”; “research”

4 objectives for exam: organize and synthesize content from classes; test knowledge in specific subjects; ability to solve problems; establish and defend positions on current issues, trends and problems in our field.

Aids to writing: understanding of related literature, cite relevant authorities, theories, important literature or other supporting evidence

Read the question! Assumptions will kill you! First read through the selection of questions and reflect on the subjects, then select 3 questions. Briefly outline answers to all 3 questions. Plan your time. Reread the question and your answer to ensure clarity and completeness.

Structure of essays: 5 “sections”, including thesis statement and intro; 3 supporting areas with most important point listed first, followed by an elaboration or explanation of it; and concluding paragraph. Discuss whether the topic is a big deal that affects many or not so big with a limited affect. Could include a model, theory, chronology, categories, scale, i.e. whether big or not as noted above. Include info from different courses. Solve a problem by establishing and defending a position. Offer advantages and disadvantages.


Cramming for comps…

Following are major topics I’m reviewing for knowledge management comprehensive exams. As knowledge professionals, can you hold your own in a discussion about these topics?

Open Access (PKP and OAJ, i.e. Stanford University, University of British Columbia, Simon Frasier Library, and Willinsky)

“10 Steps to a Learning Organization” by Klein and Saunders: assess, promote the positive, create a safe environment, reward risk-taking, use people as resources for each other, put learning power to work, map the vision, bring the vision to life, connect the systems, and get the show on the road

Organizational Learning: Everyone is a learner; create organizational excitement to learn

ALA core values: access, confidentiality/privacy, democracy, diversity, education/lifelong learning, intellectual freedom, public good, preservation, professionalism, service, and social responsibility

Intellectual freedom legislation: PICO vs. Board of Education, 1982; Patriot Act; Federal Privacy Act, 1974; Electronic Communication Privacy Act; HIPPA, 1996; Security and Freedom through Encryption Act; Sarbanes-Oxley Act

Intellectual property legislation: Copyright Act of 1976; Digital Millenium Copyright Act of 1998; Fair Use, 2007

Information Security:

CIA = confidentiality + Integrity + Availability

SDLS = investigate, analyze, logic design, physical design, implement, maintenance

Firewalls = Host, network and content

Social engineering

Risk Contol Strategies = Avoidance, transference, mitigation, acceptance

Cost-Benefit analysis = evaluate information assets vs. cost of security (favorite color vs. proprietary software)


Security threat (purposeful or unintentional) vs. attack

Need for education and training

Access vs. security trade-off

Know yourself, know your enemy and know responsibilities of different areas of the organization, ie. value of information

“The Long Tail”: Book by Chris Anderson; Article by Tim O’Reilly; Marketing to the masses—not to major players, i.e. selling less to more (Netscape, Netflix, Ebay, and major Internet advertisers vs. Page and Brin’s Google and banner ads with lifestyle analysis)

KM = people + process + technology

Main drivers in KM: information overload; maintain competitive advantage; knowledge loss; complexity of knowledge domain; managing and dealing with change; achieving organizational efficiency; dealing with communication problems; and reinventing the wheel syndrome.

 Authority (James Neal and “Taming the Wolves”) and potential downside of open source and user created products

User developed products vs. authority (Wikipedia)

Management Buy-In vs. Grass roots

Intellectual property: codified; copyright, trade secrets, trademark, and patents

Tactic vs. explicit knowledge: brain drain, knowledge sharing, documentation, intellectual property

Explicit knowledge = documented and formal; easier to identify; reusable and consistent and repeatable manner; stored in paper or computer; identified, measured, distributed and audited

Tacit knowledge = undocumented and informal; exists in people’s minds; personal; context-specific; hard to formalize and communicate; intuitions; rules of thumb; mindsets; unwritten rules of turf and territory; unconscious values; trivial to fundamental; shared through experiences. Problems = hard to identify and quantify; misleading because it depends on perception; hard to change traditional attitudes in knowledge culture; difficult to communicate; situational

Cultural knowledge: “traditional” and collective knowledge of the organization and is not effected by employee attrition


Web 2.0: attitude not a technology; participation vs. silos and gatekeepers; platform-based vs. software-based—always beta; constant change, updating and improvement; customizable services, i.e. RSS (Really Simple Syndication or Rich Site Summary) feeds; user-developed services; multi-media; portability, i.e. Google documents; blogosphere;  and brick and mortar vs. virtual, i.e. Barnes and Noble vs. Amazon

Social networking: Facebook; LinkedIn; MySpace; Twitter; Texting; Instant messaging; Flickr; Blogging; Wikis; 

Digital divide: culture; government; age; economic; racial; location; information literacy